1 chapter 1 (lessons of life)part 1

(1.1:concept of biology )

1. The meaning of bios is - Life.

2. The meaning of logos is - Knowledge.

3. Since ancient times, in different areas - Biology has been practiced.

4. Those who have life -- Are the organisms.

5. All the substances in the world can be divided into - two parts.

6. By the addition of oxygen and hydrogen - water is produced.

7. By the specific combination of non-living things -Organisms are formed.

8. Ancient science is - Biology.

9. The term biology is derived from - Greek word.

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10. Bios and logos are - Greek words.

(1.2: Branches of biology)

1. The development of embryos is discussed in - Embryology.

2. Technology and the industry of medicine are studied in - Pharmacy.

3. Endocrine glands and hormones are studied in- Endocrinology.

4. Main 2 branches of Biology- Zoology and Botany.

5. Applied subjects related to life are discussed in - applied biology.

6. According to organism, biology has- two branches.

7. Theoretical concepts of biology are discussed in - physical biology.

8. Field that deals with the form and structure of organisms is- Morphology.

9. Classification of organisms and other related principles discussed in- Taxonomy.

10. Insects are studied in- Entomology.

(1.3:classification of living being)

1. The number of identified plants till today is -about four million.

2. The father of taxonomy is- Carolus Linnaeus.

3.Carolus Linnaeus described modern botanical nomenclature in a book named - Species Plantarum.

4. Carolus Linnaeus defines - Genus and Species.

5. Linnaeus was a professor at Uppsala University - in Medicine.

6. Linnaeus divided the animal planet in to- two branches.

7. Acquiring knowledge from each organism is the aim of- classification of living things.

8. Linnaeus had special interest in- collecting flowers.

9. Linnaeus was born in - 1707.

10. Linnaeus died in - 1778.

(1.4:living world)

1. Five kingdom classification model was proposed by - R. H. Whittaker.

2. A chainlike series of cells is called - filament.

3. Blue green algae and bacteria are members of - Monera kingdom.

4. The mode of nutrition in bacteria is - absorption.

5. Cell division process in Nostoc is - binary fission.

6. Embryo does not develope in - Amoeba.

7. Chloroplast is absent in - fungi kingdom.

8. Advanced tissue system is present in - plantae kingdom.

9. Chromatin material contains DNA, RNA and protein in - protista kingdom.

10. Cell wall is composed of chitin in- fungi kingdom.

(1.5:Different steps of classification and system of binomial nomenclature.)

1. The largest classification rank is- Kingdom.

2. The smallest classification rank is- Species.

3. The number of ranks in classification is- seven.

4. The short form of International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is- ICBN.

5. ICBN and ICZN are documented in- printed form.

6. "Species plantarum" is written by- Carolus Linnaeus.

7. In every scientific name, the first part is - genus name.

8. In every scientific name, the second part is - species name.

9. The scientific name of Cockroach is- Periplaneta Americans.

10. The language of scientific naming would be- Latin.

(Short question and answer )

1. Write the scientific name of lotus flower.

Ans: The scientific name of lotus is - Nymphaea nouchali.

2. What is the scientific name of human?

Ans: The scientific name of human is - Homo sapiens.

3. What is ICBN?

Ans: ICBN is the internal rules and regulations of naming plants scientifically.

4. What is palaeontology?

Ans: Palaeontology is defined as the science of the prehistoric life forms fossils.

5. Which matter is more important in physical branches?

Ans: Theoretical concept is more important in the physical branches of biology.

6. What isnested hierarchy?

Ans: Evolution predicts that living things will be related to one another in what scientists refer to as nested hierarchies

— rather like nested boxes.

Groups of related organisms share suites of similar characteristics and the number of shared traits increases with relatedness.

7. What are the related subject of the branch of applied biology?

Ans: Applied subjects related to life are included in the branch of applied biology.

8. What is discussed in Morphology?

Ans: The form and structure of organisms are discussed in Morphology.

9. What is discussed in Histology?

Ans: The microscopic structure, arrangement and function of plant and animal tissues are discussed in histology.

10. What is discussed in Cytology?

Ans: The structure, function and division of an individual cell in a body of organisms are discussed in cytology.

11.What type of knowledge can we acquire by studying the Evolution?

Ans: We can acquire knowledge by studying evolution about the gradual development of life and organisms over successive generations on earth.

12. What is the main aim of classification?

Ans: The main aim of classification is to know the vast and diverse living world accurately with little effort in a short period of time.

13. What is the characteristics of super Kingdom Prokaryota?

Ans: The organisms of Super Kingdom Prokaryota are microscopic, prokaryotic and one celled.

14. What type of organisms are of Super Kingdom Eukaryota?

Ans: They are eukaryotic and unicellular or multicellular and live individually or in a colonial form.

15. What is the scientific name of Magpie?

Ans: Copsychus saularis.

16. Which branch of biology does genetics belong to? Explain.

Ans: Genetics is dealt under the branch of physical biology. Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with theoretical knowledge of genes and heredity. Since it does not deal with application of the subject, so it is considered under the branch physical biology.

17. Why is ecology considered a branch of physical biology?

Ans: Ecology is the science of relationship between organisms and their environment. The knowledge regarding our surrounding environment with all organisms is ecology. Since, theoretical discussion is made in ecology, so it is called a branch of physical biology.

18. Why is microbiology constituted under

applied biology?

Ans: Microbiology discusses about structure, biological functions, lifecycle and reproduction of different microorganisms like virus, bacteria, fungi etc. along with their produced diseases and their prevention. Besides, since it deals with ways to deal with the prevention of diseases produced by microorganisms through antibiotic and vaccines produced by microorganisms and their application in genetic technology and other fields, of microbiology is constituted under applied biology.

19. Why properties of organisms differ than non-living things though non-living things have impact on the formation of organisms?

Ans: Organisms are formed by complex combination of non-living things. For this complex combination there are some new properties are formed in organisms. Though non-living things have impact on the formation of organisms, these new properties are absent in non living things. So, properties of organisms differ than non-living things though non-living things have impact on the formation of organisms.

20 Why knowledge of physical science is necessary for understanding the animal world?

Ans: Physics and chemistry work together in the foundation of life which regulates the non-living world. That is why we need to physics and chemistry specially physical science for understanding the animal world.

21. What do u mean by binomial nomenclature?

Ans: The scientific name of an organism is constituted with two parts. The first part of the name denotes the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. The scientific name of potato is Solanum tuberosum, for example. The word solanum and tuberosum denote the genus and species name of potato respectively.

22.Why Blue green algae belong to the kingdom-Monera?

Ans: Blue green algae are prokaryotic organism which means they do not contain true nucleus. The cell organelles such as mitochondria, nuclear membrane, nucleolus etc. are absent in their cell. But they contain chlorophyll in their cell. So, they can produce their food through the process of photosynthesis. That is why they belong to kingdom- Monera.

23.Write two property of animals of

mammaliaclass.

Ans: Two property of animals of mammalia class are

i. Produce milk to feed their babies.

ii. Have hair on their bodies.

24. What are the factors that the 5 divisions of organisms based on?

Ans: The factors are:

1. The categories of DNA and RNA in cell.

2. The characteristics of cell in the body of organism.

3. The number of cells and

4. Food habit.

25. Write down the structural features of the

organisms under the Kingdom Protista?

Ans: The organisms, belong to the Kingdom Protista, are unicellular or multicellular, individual or colonial or filamentus and have structured nucleus. The chromatin inside cell is covered by nuclear membrane. The cell does have all the organelles.

26.Write down the features of the organisms belong to Fungi?

Ans: Most of them are terrestrial, saprophytic or parasitic. Their body is unicellular and constructed by mycelium. They have structured nucleus and their cell membrane is made of a substance called chitin.

27. How do the organisms under Animalia Kingdom reproduce?

Ans: They breed through sexual reproduction. Haploid gamete is produced from the reproductive organs of mature and diploid male and female. Embryonic layers are developed in the embryonic development.

28.Write down the names of the physical

branches of biology.

Ans: Physical branches of biology:

1. Morphology

2. Taxonomy

3. Physiology

4. Embryology

5. Cytology

6. Histology

7. Genetics

8. Ecology

9. Biogeography

10. Endocrinology

11. Evolution

29. Write down the names of the applied branches of biology.

Ans: Applied branches of biology:

1. Palaeontology

2. Biostatistics

3. Fisheries

4. Parasitology

5. Entomology

6. Medical Science

7. Biotechnology

8. Genetic Engineering

9. Biochemistry

10. Environmental Science

11. Forestry

12. Microbiology

13. Wildlife

14. Bio informatics

15. Agriculture

16. Soil Science

17. Oceanography

18. Pharmacy..